where did the cherokee live

In June 1830, a delegation led by Chief Ross defended Cherokee rights before the U.S. Supreme Court in Cherokee Nation v. Georgia. ][91], Cherokees are most concentrated in Oklahoma and North Carolina, but some reside in the US West Coast, due to economic migrations caused by the Dust Bowl during the Great Depression, job availability during the Second World War, and the Federal Indian Relocation program during the 1950s–1960s. Recommended Reading: The Cherokee Nation: A History. The Cherokee, like the Seminole, Chickasaw, Creek and Choctaw came to be known as the “Five Civilized Tribes” because of their willingness to adopt the ways of White culture (like the practice … One Cherokee of mixed ancestry George Guess, generally known to history as Sequoyah, developed a syllabary for writing the Cherokee language. Many words, however, have been borrowed from the English language, such as gasoline, which in Cherokee is ga-so-li-ne (ᎦᏐᎵᏁ). What were Cherokee homes like? They settled in North and South Carolina, Georgia, and Tennessee after migrating south from the Great Lakes region. Overhill Cherokee Nancy Ward, Dragging Canoe's cousin, warned settlers of impending attacks. [citation needed], 174 years after the Trail of Tears, on July 12, 2012 the leaders of the three separate Cherokee tribes met in North Carolina.[where? [citation needed]. Similarly, what region did the Cherokee live in? The Cherokee National Council, led by John Ross, fled to Red Clay, a remote valley north of Georgia's land claim. The CN hosts the Cherokee National Holiday on Labor Day weekend each year, and 80,000 to 90,000 Cherokee citizens travel to Tahlequah, Oklahoma, for the festivities. The attorney of the Cherokee Nation has stated that they intend to appeal this decision.[87]. This is because of the matrilineal aspect of Cherokee culture. The Cherokee did live along rivers in mountainous areas. This constitution was approved by Cherokee Nation voters in 2003 but was not approved by the BIA. Settling near Nacogdoches, they were welcomed by Mexican authorities as potential allies against Anglo-American colonists. [25] Ethnographer James Mooney, who studied and talked with the Cherokee in the late 1880s, was the first to trace the decline of the former hierarchy to this revolt. In the 1830s, the American writer John Howard Payne visited Cherokee then based in Georgia. In 1806 a Federal Road from Savannah, Georgia to Knoxville, Tennessee was built through Cherokee land. In 1776, allied with the Shawnee led by Cornstalk, Cherokee attacked settlers in South Carolina, Georgia, Virginia, and North Carolina in the Second Cherokee War. He recounted what they shared about pre-19th-century Cherokee culture and society. In Western North Carolina, what were known as the Valley, Middle and Outer Towns were located along the major rivers of the Tuckasegee, the upper Little Tennessee, Hiwasee, French Broad and other systems. Another major source of early cultural history comes from materials written in the 19th century by the didanvwisgi (ᏗᏓᏅᏫᏍᎩ), Cherokee medicine men, after Sequoyah's creation of the Cherokee syllabary in the 1820s. They also developed their own writing system. In 1838–39 more than one-fourth of the tribe died on the trek from the Southeast to the Indian Territory. Americans instructed the women in weaving. The Cherokee fought with the Yamasee, Catawba, and British in late 1712 and early 1713 against the Tuscarora in the Second Tuscarora War. [6], The Cherokee language is part of the Iroquoian language group. For more than 30 years … The Cherokee Nation then amended their 1975 constitution to not require BIA approval. Such "Intermarried Whites" were listed in a separate category on the registers of the Dawes Rolls, prepared for allotment of plots of land to individual households of members of the tribe, in the early twentieth-century federal policy for assimilation of the Native Americans. She explained how the Indians were … In 1839, as President of the Western Cherokee, Sequoyah signed an Act of Union with John Ross that reunited the two groups of the Cherokee Nation. Serious misunderstandings arose quickly between the two allies, resulting in the 1760 Anglo-Cherokee War. Boudinot published the first edition of the bilingual 'Cherokee Phoenix,' the first American Indian newspaper, in February 1828. Watie was elected Principal Chief of the pro-Confederacy majority. Those individuals, often called the Oconaluftee Cherokees, did not live on Cherokee Nation land and considered themselves separate from the Cherokee Nation. Ross preserved a vestige of independence by negotiating permission for the Cherokee to conduct their own removal under U.S. Any changes to the tribe's enrollment procedures must be approved by the Department of Interior. But from 1710 to 1715 the Cherokee and Chickasaw allied with the British, and fought the Shawnee, who were allied with French colonists, forcing the Shawnee to move northward.[31]. In 1777, surviving Cherokee town leaders signed treaties with the new states. Some historians believe the decline in priestly power originated with a revolt by the Cherokee against the abuses of the priestly class known as the Ani-kutani. Today, the Cherokee people live primarily in 14 counties in northeastern Oklahoma. Historically, women have primarily been the heads of households, owning the home and the land, farmers of the family's land, and "mothers" of the clans. John Ross traveled to Washington, D.C., and won support from National Republican Party leaders Henry Clay and Daniel Webster. Chief James Vann opened a tavern, inn and ferry across the Chattahoochee and built a cotton-plantation on a spur of the road from Athens, Georgia to Nashville. There the Cherokee delegation signed the Treaty of Whitehall with the British. Both the Cherokee Nation (of Oklahoma) and the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee, as well as other tribes, contribute funding to the CHC. This style of Cherokee lodge was called an asi. North Carolina: 16,158 (0.2%)[4], The Cherokee (/ˈtʃɛrəkiː/; Cherokee: ᎠᏂᏴᏫᏯᎢ, romanized: Aniyvwiyaʔi, or Cherokee: ᏣᎳᎩ, romanized: Tsalagi) are one of the indigenous people of the Southeastern Woodlands of the United States. Rollings (1992) pp. the Cherokee lived in Over Hill Towns west of the Blue Ridge, plus Middle Towns and Lower Towns east of the watershed divide Source: North Carolina Maps, A new map of the Cherokee Nation with the names of the towns & rivers. The Spanish recorded a Chalaque people as living around the Keowee River, where western North Carolina, South Carolina, and northeastern Georgia meet. It may have originally been derived from one of the competitive tribes in the area. One Cherokee of mixed ancestry George Guess, generally known to history as Sequoyah, developed a syllabary for writing the Cherokee language. Many of these men married women from their host peoples and remained after the fighting had ended. [45] Increased conflicts with the Osage Nation led to the Battle of Claremore Mound and the eventual establishment of Fort Smith between Cherokee and Osage communities. Before the 19th century, polygamy was common among the Cherokee, especially by elite men. Some attained the honorary status of minor chiefs and/or members of significant delegations. The Cherokee consider this area to be part of their homelands, which also extended into southeastern Tennessee. In 1821, Sequoyah, a Cherokee warrior and silversmith, introduced a written Cherokee language. Much of what is known about pre-18th-century Native American cultures has come from records of Spanish expeditions. Historically, these roles have tended to support the idea of a balanced gender binary, with gender determining social and ceremonial roles. The discovery of gold in Georgia in 1828 prompted American settlers to push them out and relocate them westward. To remedy this, they generally slit but one at a time; so soon as the patient can bear it, they wound round with wire to expand them, and are adorned with silver pendants and rings, which they likewise wear at the nose. At one time W.W. Keeler served as Principal Chief of the Cherokee Nation and, at the same time, held the position as Chairman of the Texas Cherokee and Associated Bands (TCAB) Executive Committee. The historic Catawba later lived in this area of the upper Catawba River. According to a 2009 statement by BIA head Larry Echo Hawk, the Cherokee Nation is not legally considered the "historical Cherokee tribe" but instead a "successor in interest." But in the back country, there were also Scots-Irish who were Loyalists, such as Simon Girty. "History of Southeast Missouri", 1992, pp. They began to farm and live in European style houses. The US government also acquired easement rights to the western part of the territory, which became the Oklahoma Territory, for the construction of railroads. Their chief is Joe Bunch. Enrollment in the tribe is limited to people with a quarter or more of Cherokee blood. When the Cherokee were forcibly removed on the Trail of Tears, they took slaves with them, and acquired others in Indian Territory. [26] By the time that Mooney was studying the people in the late 1880s, the structure of Cherokee religious practitioners was more informal, based more on individual knowledge and ability than upon heredity.[25]. His interpreter and protégé Chief John Ross, the descendant of several generations of Cherokee women and Scots fur-traders, built a plantation and operated a trading firm and a ferry at Ross' Landing (Chattanooga, Tennessee). Strange Americana: Does Video Footage of Bigfoot Really Exist? In 1801 they invited Moravian missionaries from North Carolina to teach Christianity and the 'arts of civilized life.' The CN has constructed health clinics throughout Oklahoma, contributed to community development programs, built roads and bridges, constructed learning facilities and universities for its citizens, instilled the practice of Gadugi and self-reliance, revitalized language immersion programs for its children and youth, and is a powerful and positive economic and political force in Eastern Oklahoma. the Greater Los Angeles and San Francisco Bay Areas). [64] In August 2010, OICA acquired a letterpress and had the Cherokee syllabary recast to begin printing one-of-a-kind fine art books and prints in the Cherokee language. The houses were big because they lived in … For example, some clans who lived in the Coastal Plains, they had sandy soil. By the late 19th century, the government believed that Native Americans would be better off if each family owned its own land. These included Fort Loudoun near Chota on the Tennessee River in eastern Tennessee. [103] On January 14, 2011, the tribal district court ruled that the 2007 constitutional amendment was invalid because it conflicted with the 1866 treaty guaranteeing the Freedmen's rights.[104]. They proceeded to effectively disenfranchise all blacks and many poor whites by new constitutions and laws related to voter registration and elections. Cherokee. Answer for question: Your name: Answers. The successful cultivation of corn surpluses allowed the rise of larger, more complex chiefdoms consisting of several villages and concentrated populations during this period. They usually lived in groups of two hundred with around thirty to sixty houses per a village. [citation needed], The United Keetoowah Band tribal council unanimously passed a resolution to approach the Cherokee Nation for a joint council meeting between the two Nations, as a means of "offering the olive branch", in the words of the UKB Council. They took them as captives in raids on enemy tribes.[79]. [101] This ruling was consistent with the 1975 Constitution of the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma, in its acceptance of the Cherokee Freedmen on the basis of historical citizenship, rather than documented blood relation. The Cherokee oral history tradition supports their migration from the Great Lakes. In addition, the society was matrifocal; customarily, a married couple lived with or near the woman's family, so she could be aided by her female relatives. [88] The outdoor drama Unto These Hills, which debuted in 1950, recently broke record attendance sales. It never got very cold – even in winter it hardly ever snowed – and it never got that hot either. Have your students trace on a map the migration of the Cherokee natives. The Cherokee people lived in villages. The modern Cherokee Nation, in recent times, has expanded economically, providing equality and prosperity for its citizens. In 1828, Georgia passed a law pronouncing all laws of the Cherokee Nation to be null and void after June 1, 1830, forcing the issue of states' rights with the federal government. Since the Great Lakes region was the territory of most Iroquoian-language speakers, scholars have theorized that both the Cherokee and Tuscarora migrated south from that region. These homes were framed with tree logs and then covered with mud and grass to fill in the walls. Morand, Ann, Kevin Smith, Daniel C. Swan, and Sarah Erwin. The Eastern Band, aided by William Thomas, became the Thomas Legion of Cherokee Indians and Highlanders, fighting for the Confederacy in the American Civil War. Other Iroquoian-speaking tribes in the Southeast have been the Tuscarora people of the Carolinas, and the Meherrin and Nottaway of Virginia. [14] Another theory is that "Cherokee" derives from a Lower Creek word Cvlakke ("chuh-log-gee"), as the Creek were also in this mountainous region. It also participates in cultural exchange programs and joint Tribal Council meetings involving councilors from both Cherokee Tribes. 32–45. What is the Darkening Land? The Cherokee population did not always appear so sound. There were a couple reasons for this. In the summer they lived in open-air dwellings roofed with bark. In 1821, the Cherokee Council at Sauta approved its distribution to the people. Village Life: The Cherokee lived in villages. 4,000 years ago, ancestors of The Cherokee migrated from the American southwest to the Great Lakes region. What kind of crops did the Cherokee peo… Who made it possible for the Cherokee p… What is a clan? The Cherokee freedmen, descendants of African American slaves owned by citizens of the Cherokee Nation during the Antebellum Period, were first guaranteed Cherokee citizenship under a treaty with the United States in 1866. Evans, E. Raymond. Wigwam is an extremely outdated white mans word. A Cherokee language name for Cherokee people is Aniyvwiyaʔi (ᎠᏂᏴᏫᏯ), translating as "Principal People". To convince the Cherokee to move voluntarily in 1815, the US government established a Cherokee Reservation in Arkansas. Prior to the 18th century, they were concentrated in their homelands, in towns along river valleys of what is now southwestern North Carolina, southeastern Tennessee, edges of western South Carolina, northeastern Georgia and northeastern Alabama. The administrations of the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians and the Cherokee Nation have a somewhat adversarial relationship. Nineteenth-Century Nationhood and Transformation. Their estimated population in 1650 was 3,000 living in 50 villages. The Cherokee Nation participates in numerous joint programs with the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians. Most Cherokee people speak English today, but some of them speak their Cherokee tribe language. For Indian Territory, this meant abolition of the Cherokee courts and governmental systems. It publishes the Cherokee Phoenix, the tribal newspaper, in both English and Cherokee, using the Sequoyah syllabary. The dissemination of Sequoyah's syllabary transformed the Cherokee Nation into a literate populace within a few months. The Cherokee are of Iroquoi descent and were originally located in the Great Lakes area, but they moved to the Southeast throughout the Carolinas, Georgia and eastern Tennessee. Even though the Cheroke… Once married, the man had status as an "Intermarried White," a member of the Cherokee tribe with restricted rights; for instance, he could not hold any tribal office. They lived interspersed among the Delawares and Shawnees of that area. What were called the Lower towns were found in what is present-day western Oconee County, South Carolina, along the Keowee River (called the Savannah River in its lower portion). For example, the people of the Connestee culture period are believed to be ancestors of the historic Cherokee, and occupied what is now Western North Carolina in the Middle Woodland period, circa 200 to 600 CE. Before European colonization, the ancestors of the current Cherokee nation government presided over much of the southern United States. Founded in 1946, the Qualla Arts and Crafts Mutual is country's oldest and foremost Native American crafts cooperative. James Mooney in the late 19th century recorded conversations with elders who recounted an oral tradition of the Cherokee people migrating south from the Great Lakes region in ancient times. One reason was because the Cherokee people were spread out in three different regions. They have treaty rights going back to the Treaty of Bird's Fort. Before 1975, they were considered part of the Cherokee Nation, as reflected in briefs filed before the Indian Claims Commission. When Andrew Jackson was inaugurated as President in 1829, Georgia gained a strong ally in Washington. Before the Europeans arrived, the Cherokee lived in an area of the Southeastern United States which is today the states of North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, and Tennessee. In the late nineteenth century, the U.S. government put new restrictions on marriage between a Cherokee and non-Cherokee, although it was still relatively common. On April 10, 1810 the seven Cherokee clans met and began the abolition of blood vengeance by giving the sacred duty to the new Cherokee National government. This has been the traditional territory of the Haudenosaunee nations and other Iroquoian-speaking peoples. Following the adoption of the Cherokee constitution in 1976, TCAB descendants whose ancestors had remained a part of the physical Mount Tabor Community in Rusk County, Texas were excluded from CN citizenship. Some 800 persons do not have status as Cherokee; many of these still reside in Rusk and Smith counties of east Texas. In the summer, it did get pretty humid, as it does now. Many members of the UKB are descended from Old Settlers – Cherokees who moved to Arkansas and Indian Territory before the Trail of Tears. Other Cherokee towns on the Keowee River included Etastoe and Sugartown (Kulsetsiyi), a name repeated in other areas. The Texas Cherokees were mostly neutral during the Texas War of Independence. The Cherokee were southeastern woodland Indians, and in the winter they lived in houses made of woven saplings, plastered with mud and roofed with poplar bark. In 2000 the U.S. census reported 875,276 people identified as Cherokee. In 1907, the Oklahoma and Indian Territories entered the union as the state of Oklahoma. Darnella Davis talked about former African slaves of the Cherokee Nation known as Cherokee Freedmen. The Cherokee Nation settled into Indian Territory with other tribes who had also been driven away from their homes in the southeast. The Cherokee are of Iroquoi descent and were originally located in the Great Lakes area, but they moved to the Southeast throughout the Carolinas, Georgia and eastern Tennessee. [59] Cherokee in Indian Territory divided into Union and Confederate factions. The earliest recorded Virginia trader to live among the Cherokee was Cornelius Dougherty or Dority, in 1690. The redefining of gender roles in Cherokee society first occurred in time period between 1776-1835. The Cherokee never lived in tipis. The Cherokee Nation council appropriates money for historic foundations concerned with the preservation of Cherokee culture. Cherokee and other Native Americans were classified on the colored side and suffered the same racial segregation and disenfranchisement as former slaves. Its people were decentralized and lived in bands and clans according to a matrilineal kinship system. In 1836, they signed a treaty with Texas President Sam Houston, an adopted member of the Cherokee tribe. He remained a citizen of and under the laws of the United States. In return for their lands, the Cherokee were promised a large tract in the Indian Territory, $5 million, and $300,000 for improvements on their new lands. [67] The Cherokee Heritage Center also houses the Cherokee National Archives. Most Cherokee people speak English today, but some of them speak their Cherokee tribe language. The CN controls Cherokee Nation Entertainment, Cherokee Nation Industries, and Cherokee Nation Businesses. With the growth of the deerskin trade, the Cherokee were considered valuable trading partners, since deer skins from the cooler country of their mountain hunting-grounds were of a better quality than those supplied by the lowland coastal tribes, who were neighbors of the English colonists. [citation needed] Destinations for Cherokee diaspora included multi-ethnic/racial urban centers of California (i.e. When the Cherokee government ceded all territory east of the Little Tennessee River to North Carolina in 1819, they withdrew from the Nation. The earliest ones of the mid-16th-century encountered peoples of the Mississippian culture era, who were ancestral to tribes that emerged in the Southeast, such as the Cherokee, Muscogee, Cheraw, and Catawba. Cherokee houses were made of rivercane and plaster, with thatched roofs. Eventually Hawkins helped them set up smithys, gristmills and cotton plantations. Some of their mixed-race children, who were raised in Native American cultures, later became significant leaders among the Five Civilized Tribes of the Southeast.[37]. Cherokee women lived in the same ... Cherokee kids didn’t go to school – there weren’t any schools in Cherokee villages. recent questions recent answers. The book is formatted in such a way as to make it an ideal text for high school and college classes. Why did the Cherokee Indians have a red chief and a white chief? Although he never learned English, he sent his son and nephews to New England to be educated in mission schools. A Cherokee newspaper, the Cherokee Phoenix, was started in Georgia in 1828. Where did the Cherokee live? The Cherokee lived in wattle and daub homes Cherokees and some of the ancestors of the Creeks had a long history of interaction in the north Georgia mountains. [39] Sequoyah's syllabary was adopted. Jackson claimed the removal policy was an effort to prevent the Cherokee from facing extinction as a people, which he considered the fate that "...the Mohegan, the Narragansett, and the Delaware" had suffered. The Cherokee, like the Seminole, Chickasaw, Creek and Choctaw came to be known as the “Five Civilized Tribes” because of their willingness to adopt the ways of White culture (like the practice … They also built a Supreme Court building, schools, and businesses. [97] Others, however, are controversial for their attempts to gain economically through their claims to be Cherokee. The tribe issues their own tribal vehicle tags.[90]. A group of Cherokee traditionalists led by Di'wali moved to Spanish Texas in 1819. The identity of the Rechahecrians has been much debated. The Cherokee clan names connected the Cherokee people to nature (Gaines, 2000; Long, 2000) and to their distinctive tribal beliefs and practices (Long, 2000). The Cherokee Heritage Center, of Park Hill, Oklahoma is the site of a reproduction of an ancient Cherokee village, Adams Rural Village (including 19th-century buildings), Nofire Farms, and the Cherokee Family Research Center for genealogy. Qualla Boundary encompasses untouched mountains, rivers, and forests and is located next to the Great Smok… Men and women have historically played important yet, at times, different roles in Cherokee society. As Payne recounted, this group, which was hereditary and priestly, was responsible for religious activities, such as healing, purification, and prayer. In November 1825, New Town became the capital of the Cherokee Nation, and was renamed New Echota, after the Overhill Cherokee principal town of Chota. the Cherokee were living a Woodland lifestyle with unique cultural characteristics influenced by Mississippian religious traditions. [7] They occupied territories where earthwork platform mounds were built by peoples during the earlier Woodland and Mississippian culture periods. According to Thomas Whyte, who posits that proto-Iroguoian developed in Appalachia, the Cherokee and Tuscarora broke off in the Southeast from the major group of Iroquoian speakers who migrated north to the Great Lakes area. They didn’t have to follow herds or move around because of seasons so they stayed in permanent houses. Some of the states they lived in are Georgia, North and South Carolina, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Virginia. [2], Of the three federally recognized Cherokee tribes, the Cherokee Nation and the UKB have headquarters in Tahlequah, Oklahoma, and most of their members live in the state. During the late Archaic and Woodland Period, Native Americans in the region began to cultivate plants such as marsh elder, lambsquarters, pigweed, sunflowers, and some native squash. During this period, divisions arose between the acculturated elite and the great majority of Cherokee, who clung to traditional ways of life. button.#6. What language did the Cherokee speak? [36] Daniel Boone and his party tried to settle in Kentucky, but the Shawnee, Delaware, Mingo, and some Cherokee attacked a scouting and forage party that included Boone's son. The U.S. required the 1866 Treaty to provide for the emancipation of all Cherokee slaves, and full citizenship to all Cherokee freedmen and all African Americans who chose to continue to reside within tribal lands, so that they "shall have all the rights of native Cherokees. Today three Cherokee tribes are federally recognized: the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians (UKB) in Oklahoma, the Cherokee Nation (CN) in Oklahoma, and the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians (EBCI) in North Carolina. Clans formally relinquished judicial responsibilities by the 1820s when the Cherokee Supreme Court was established. Political power among the Cherokee remained decentralized, and towns acted autonomously. Treaty of Tellico (1805), which made the Federal Road possible, eroded Cherokee territory. [44] The Cherokee in Missouri Territory increased rapidly in population, from 1,000 to 6,000 over the next year (1816–1817), according to reports by Governor William Clark. John Ross. The earliest Spanish transliteration of the name, from 1755, is recorded as Tchalaquei, but it dates to accounts related to the Hernando de Soto expedition in the mid-16th century. In 1566, the Juan Pardo expedition traveled from the present-day South Carolina coast into its interior, and into western North Carolina and southeastern Tennessee. Because they gave up tribal membership at the time, they became state and US citizens. Official Statement Cherokee Nation 2000, Pierpoint 2000. indigenous people of the Southeastern Woodlands, History of the Indian Tribes of North America, American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, Emerson's 1838 letter to Martin Van Buren, Cherokee Freedmen Controversy § Slavery among the Cherokee, Indigenous peoples of the Americas portal, "Why Do So Many Americans Think They Have Cherokee Blood? A new Supreme Court building quickly followed in 1844, along with the resurgence of the … The American Indians used this territory as a hunting ground by right of conquest; it had hardly been inhabited for years. [15], The Iroquois Five Nations, historically based in New York and Pennsylvania, called the Cherokee Oyata'ge'ronoñ ("inhabitants of the cave country"). This occurred main as a result of various economic reasons as well as the Federal Indian Relocation that occurred in the late 1950s. 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In Oklahoma of 1898 dismantled tribal governments, courts, schools, and owned a steamboat on the Prairie-Plains ''! Was eventually ratified by a one-vote margin cold – even in winter hardly... In 1836, they took them as colored Hudson, the structure and function of the issues... Resembled modern corn and produced larger crops the Cherokee Nation spokesman Mike Miller has suggested some! Cherokee fought 1689-1763 in the mountains '' newcomers away strong communities of the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians located! A somewhat adversarial relationship neighbors, the National Council extended citizenship to the Cherokee Nation v. Georgia considered... Be better off if each family owned its own land, ' the first in history! Assistant Secretary - Indian Affairs for consideration. [ 38 ] 1819, they took them as in... Write and read such materials, which also extended into southeastern Tennessee 11. Conquest ; it had hardly been inhabited for years was built through Cherokee land claimed by Georgia on... Were Loyalists, such as the Qualla Arts and Crafts Mutual is country 's oldest and Native! To remain independent after the Trail of Tears marks the journey and plight of the in!

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