when was the grand canal built

In the Southern Song dynasty (1127–1279), the capital was established at Linan, which meant that the Eastern Zhejiang Canal became an important shipping channel. It runs from north to south, from near Peking to Hangchou, intersecting the Huang Ho (Yellow), Huai, and Yangtze rivers. The canal is 239 kilometers (149 mi) long. This section was bu… When the canal was completed it linked the systems of the Qiantang River, the Yangtze River, the Huai River, the Yellow River, the Wei River, and the Hai River. After Pizhou, a northerly course passes through Tai'erzhuang to enter Weishan Lake at Hanzhuang bound for Nanyang and Jining (this course is the remnant of the New Nanyang Canal of 1566 – see below). [31] It is known that 121,500 soldiers and officers were needed simply to operate the 11,775 government grain barges in the mid-15th century. This ancient waterway was first constructed as early as the 4th century bce , was rebuilt in 607 ce , and has been used ever since. Dynasties in 1271–1633 significantly restored and rebuilt the canal and altered its route to supply their capital. The following year, he moved the capital to Luoyang and ordered a large-scale expansion of the canal. 1 decade ago. In 1289, a geological survey preceded its one-year construction. The Grand Canal was built in the perspective of Versailles Palace by gardener Andre Lenotre. [28] Between 1411 and 1415 a total of 165,000 laborers dredged the canal bed in Shandong and built new channels, embankments, and canal locks.[28]. [28] They dug four large reservoirs in Shandong to regulate water levels, which allowed them to avoid pumping water from local sources and water tables. The canal, now in Hebei province, passes through the cities of Dezhou and Cangzhou. Further on, about 30 km (19 mi) north of Jining, the highest elevation of the canal (38.5 m or 126 ft above sea level) is reached at the town of Nanwang. Many deaths, decline of dynasty. At Weishan Lake, both courses enter Shandong province. The water level in the Jiangnan Canal remains scarcely above sea level (the Zhenjiang ridge is 12 meters higher than that of the Yangtze River). The main traffic, however, is concentrated in the southern half. 'Capital–Hangzhou Grand Canal', or more commonly, as the「大運河」("Grand Canal")), a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is the longest canal or artificial river in the world. Emperors would sometimes travel along the Grand Canal to inspect the locks. He created a 1 670m long east-west perspective in the axis of the Palace by digging the canal. He achieved this by joining two of these rivers' tributaries, the Si and the Ji respectively, at their closest point, across a low watershed of the Shandong massif. This ancient waterway was first constructed as early as the 4th century bce, was rebuilt in 607 ce, and has been used ever since. The canal opened from Braunston to Weedon on 21st June 1796, and a few weeks later it was extended as far south as Blisworth, where a long tunnel was under construction. History, 09.11.2020 21:10, nauticatyson9 The Grand Canal was built to connect The city of Kaifeng grew to be a major hub, later becoming the capital of the Song dynasty (960–1279). The Grand Canal nominally runs between Beijing and Hangzhou over a total length of 1,794 km (1,115 mi), however, only the section from Hangzhou to Jining is currently navigable. This was foreseen by a Chinese official in 1447, who remarked that the flood-prone Yellow River made the Grand Canal like a throat that could be easily strangled (leading some officials to request restarting the grain shipments through the East China Sea). It rose to a height of 42 meters (138 ft) above the Yangtze, but environmental and technical factors left it with chronic water shortages until it was re-engineered in 1411 by Song Li of the Ming. Despite temporary periods of desolation and disuse, the Grand Canal furthered an indigenous and growing economic market in China's urban centers from the Sui period onwards to the present. [30] Even the shipwrecked Korean Choe Bu (1454–1504)—while traveling for five months throughout China in 1488—acknowledged that Hangzhou served not as a competitor but as an economic feeder into the greater Suzhou market. This section, traditionally known as the Shanyang Canal, in recent centuries has been called the Southern Grand Canal (Nan Yunhe). The erection of the Grand Canal that goes from Beijing to … [14] This allowed the southern area to provide grain to the northern province, particularly to troops stationed there. It is generally a minimum of 100 meters wide in the congested city centers, and often two or three times this width in the neighboring countryside. The economic importance of the canal likely will continue. Slough-Eton canal. Since the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, the canal has been used primarily to transport vast amounts of bulk goods such as bricks, gravel, sand, diesel, and coal. As in the Song and Jin era, the canal fell into disuse and dilapidation during the Yuan dynasty's decline. In the Ming dynasty, official courier stations were placed at intervals of 35 to 45 km (22 to 28 mi). [24] The Jurchen Jin dynasty continually battled with the Song in the region between the Huai River and the Yellow River; this warfare led to the dilapidation of the canal until the Mongols invaded in the 13th century AD and began necessary repairs. The elevation of the canal bed varies from 1 m below sea level at Hangzhou to 38.5 m above at its summit. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. Antonio D. Lv 6. This latter course is less used today. It was built to enable successive Chinese regimes to transport surplus grain from the agriculturally rich Yangtze (Chang) and Huai river valleys to feed the capital cities and large standing armies in northern China. [12] The Grand Canal was fully completed under the second Sui emperor, from the years 604 to 609,[13] first by linking Luoyang to the Yangzhou (and the Yangtze valley), then expanding it to Hangzhou (south), and Beijing (north). The mouth of the Daqing, however, silted up almost immediately. venice was built on a group isles in the middle ages, so the grand canal in natural. After the An Shi Rebellion (755–763), the economy of northern China was greatly damaged and never recovered due to wars and to constant flooding of the Yellow River. Recent works have allowed floodwaters from Shanghe to be diverted safely out to sea. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. Its great number of feeder springs (between two and four hundred, depending on the counting method and season of the year) also led to it being called the quanhe or 'river of springs'. In the Qing dynasty, the Kangxi and Qianlong emperors made twelve trips to the south, on all occasions but one reaching Hangzhou. This ‘Middle Canal’ section runs from Huai'an to Weishan Lake, passing through Luoma Lake and following more than one course, the result of the impact of centuries of Yellow River flooding. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. Designed by Antonio da Ponte in the late 16th century, the Rialto Bridge crosses the canal at roughly its halfway point. Updates? Additional amounts of water from the Yangtze will be drawn into the canal in Jiangdu City, where a giant 400 m3/s (14,000 cu ft/s) pumping station was already built in the 1980s, and is then fed uphill by pumping stations along the route and through a tunnel under the Yellow River, from where it can flow downhill to reservoirs near Tianjin. The canal is also used to divert water from the Yangtze to northern Jiangsu province for irrigation, making possible double cropping of rice. Anonymous. THE GRAND UNION CANAL HISTORY The first step towards the creation of the Grand Union was taken in 1925, when the Grand Junction sought a report from the engineer of the Warwick canals on the cost of putting them in order. Although the Tang and Song dynasty international seaports—the greatest being Guangzhou and Quanzhou, respectively—and maritime foreign trade brought merchants great fortune, it was the Grand Canal within China that spurred the greatest amount of economic activity and commercial profit. It was fed by rivers flowing from east to west from the borders of the Shandong massif. This, the Grand Canal's first true summit section, was engineered by the Mongol Oqruqči in 1238 to connect Jining to the southern end of the Huitong Canal. The idea of connecting Dublin to the Shannon was proposed as early as 1715, and in 1757 the Irish Parliament granted Thomas Omer £20,000 to start construction of a canal. Its southern section, running between Hangzhou and the Yangtze, was named the Jiangnan River (the river ‘South of the Yangtze’). After the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, the need for economic development led the authorities to order heavy reconstruction work. 2. [6], The Han Gou is known as the second oldest section of the later Grand Canal since the Hong Gou (t 鴻溝, s 鸿沟, Hónggōu, "Canal of the Wild Geese" or "Far-Flung Canal") most likely preceded it. Peasants. Yes, the navvies dug Blisworth by hand. [7] Work began in 486 BC, from south of Yangzhou to north of Huai'an in Jiangsu, and within three years the Han Gou had connected the Yangtze with the Huai River utilizing existing waterways, lakes, and marshes. [45], In 1793, after a largely fruitless diplomatic mission to Jehol, a large part of Lord Macartney's embassy returned south to the Yangtze delta via the Grand Canal. Construction of the Grand Canal, which was based on a number of canals built as early as the sixth century B.C. It is now the subject of a restoration project. THE GRAND CANAL is one of the wonders of the world. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/topic/Grand-Canal-China, UNESCO World Heritage Centre - The Grand Canal, Grand Canal - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. [2] With the recorded labor of five million men and women under the supervision of Ma Shumou, the first major section of the Grand Canal was completed in the year 605—called the Bian Qu. The Eastern Zhejiang Canal (simplified Chinese: 浙东运河;; traditional Chinese: 浙東運河;; pinyin: zhèdōng yùnhé), also known as the Hangzhou–Ningbo Canal (杭甬运河) is located in Zhejiang. When was the start of the Grand Canal built? The southern portion remains in heavy use to the present day. Yellow and Yangzi. The original house was built in the 1790s, just a year after the Naas branch of the canal was opened. This move deprived Nanjing of its status as chief political center of China. The 16ft-deep Venice Grand Canal – known by locals as the Canalazzo – has over 170 buildings built along its two-and-a-half mile length, many of them grand palazzos. It reappears again in Liaocheng City on the north bank where, intermittently flowing through a renovated stone channel, it reaches the city of Linqing on the Shandong – Hebei border. Construction on the Eastern Route officially began on December 27, 2002, and water was supposed to reach Tianjin by 2012. The reopening of the Grand Canal also benefited Suzhou over Nanjing since the former was in a better position on the main artery of the Grand Canal, and so it became Ming China's greatest economic center. Eventually another stretch of canal, the Huitong Canal, was built to join Dong’e Zhen on the Huang He with the Wei River at Linqing. [46], In 1848, Robert Fortune reached Hang Chow Foo by the Grand Canal in his quest for tea plants. It is here that the modern canal stops and that a Grand Canal Cultural Park has been built. [15] Besides being the headquarters for the government salt monopoly and the largest pre-modern industrial production center of the empire, Yangzhou was also the geographical midpoint along the north-south trade axis, and so became the major center for southern goods shipped north. Marco Polo recounted the Grand Canal's arched bridges as well as the warehouses and prosperous trade of its cities in the 13th century. Early canal construction took place in the Shanyin old canal in Shaoxing City, in the Spring and Autumn period (approximately 771 to 476 BC). The convenience of transport also enabled rulers to lead inspection tours to southern China. In the first period, canals were built to serve the heavy industry of the north and midlands. [11][12] The history of the canal's construction is handed down in the book Kaiheji ('Record of the Opening of the Canal'). It was there all the time, Venice is built entirely on water, it is built on a lagoon. Many of the canal sections fell into disrepair, and some parts were returned to flat fields. Some of these have disappeared, others are still partially extant, and others form the basis for the modern canal. By this point waterless, it no longer connects to the river. Who (mostly) built the Grand Canal? The houses were built around the Grand Canal mostly in teh seventeenth century… From the Tang to Qing dynasties, the Grand Canal served as the main artery between northern and southern China and was essential for the transport of grain to Beijing. Song Li's improvements, recommended by a local man named Bai Ying, included damming the rivers Wen and Guang and drawing lateral canals from them to feed reservoir lakes at the very summit, at a small town called Nanwang. [15] One of the greatest benefits of the canal system in the Tang dynasty—and subsequent dynasties—was that it reduced the cost of shipping grain that had been collected in taxes from the Yangtze River Delta to northern China. The old summit section is now dry, while the new canal holds too little water to be navigable. 'the river of locks'. [40] There are plans for restoring transportation up to Tai'an.[41]. Traditionally the Shanghe region west of the canal has been prone to frequent flooding, while the Xiahe region to its east has been hit by less frequent but immensely damaging inundations caused by the failure of the Grand Canal levees. [43], In the late 1200s, Marco Polo traveled extensively through China and his trips included time on the Grand Canal, then a major artery for shipping silk, porcelain, and wine.[44]. For travelers who have visited Venice and for those who have yet to go, Venice remains a beautiful mystery. Omissions? The Grand Canal was built to connect 1 See answer 05isamar51479 is waiting for your help. [38]. It includes ten city gates and over 20 stone bridges of traditional design and historic areas that have been well preserved as well as temples and pavilions. In 1566, to escape the problems caused by flooding of the Yellow River around Yutai (now on the western shore of Weishan Lake), the Nanyang New Canal was opened. [21] During the Song and earlier periods, barge ships occasionally crashed and wrecked along the Shanyang Yundao section of the Grand Canal while passing the double slipways, and more often than not those were then robbed of the tax grain by local bandits. This portion of the canal was used to transport troops to what is now the North Korean border region during the Goguryeo-Sui Wars (598–614). The canal can now accommodate medium-sized barge traffic throughout its length. [6] This canal became known as the Han Gou (邗溝, "Han Conduit"). [12], The earlier dike-building project in 587 along the Yellow River—overseen by engineer Liang Rui—established canal lock gates to regulate water levels for the canal. Although it was mainly used for shipping grain, it also transported other commodities and the corridor along the canal developed into an important economic belt. Grand Canal - Construction. In 2014, with Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal and Sui & Tang Grand Canal, the Eastern Zhejiang Canal became one World Heritage site. The institution of the Grand Canal by the Qin dynasty and the Sui dynasty, mostly the Sui, also obviated the need for the army to become self-sufficient farmers while posted at the northern frontier, as food supplies could now easily be shipped from south to north over the pass. The excavation of the Grand Canal may be compared with the Great Wall in magnitude. [17], By the year 735, it was recorded that about 149,685,400 kilograms (165,000 short tons) of grain were shipped annually along the canal. The earliest work on the grand canal was done by the Sui Dynasty from 581ce to 618ce, millions of labourers worked on the river in . The Manchus invaded China in the mid-17th century, allowed through the northern passes by the Chinese general Wu Sangui once the Ming capital at Beijing had fallen into the hands of a rebel army. Its course is today divided into seven sections. [42], In 1170, the poet, politician, and historian Lu You traveled along the Grand Canal from Shaoxing to the river Yangtze, recording his progress in a diary. It was replaced in 1932 by a wooden bridge that … After the Taiping Rebellion (1850–64) and the Nian Rebellion (1853–68), the use of the canal as the major supply line to Beijing was abandoned, and the canal gradually fell into disrepair in its northern sections. The Jianbi ship locks on the Yangtze are currently handling some 75,000,000 tons[vague] each year, and the Li Canal is forecast to reach 100,000,000 tons[vague] in the next few years. About 50 km (31 mi) further north, passing close by Dongping Lake, the canal reaches the Yellow River. Mostly built over the flood plains made by the wandering Yellow River, long stretches are flat and so were easy to construct. Records show that, at its height, every year more than 8,000 boats[39] transported four to six million dan (240,000–360,000 metric tons) of grain. In Tianjin, the canal heads northwest, for a short time following the course of the Yongding, a tributary of the Hai River, before branching off toward Tongzhou on the edge of the municipality of Beijing. [12], Between 604 and 609, Emperor Yang Guang (or Sui Yangdi) of the Sui dynasty ordered several canals to be dug in a 'Y' shape, from Hangzhou in the south to terminate in (modern) Beijing and the capital region along the Yellow River valley. In 12 BC, in order to solve the problem of the Grand Canal having to use 160 kilometers (100 mi) of the perilous course of the Yellow River in Northern Jiangsu, a man named Li Hualong created the Jia Canal. The Suzhou section of the Jiangnan Canal flows through the western part of the city. In recent years, because of newer modes of transportation, the canal has been gradually replaced. [18] To ensure smooth travel of grain shipments, Transport Commissioner Liu Yan (in office from 763 to 779) had special river barge ships designed and constructed to fit the depths of each section of the entire canal.[19]. What dynasty was the grand canal built? "The Grand Canal of China is the world's oldest and longest canal, far surpassing the next two grand canals of the world: Suez and Panama Canal. During the Yuan period, however, canal transport was expensive and inefficient, and most grain went by sea. On June 22, 2014, The Grand Canal was listed as a World Heritage Site, at the 2014 Conference on World Heritage.[35]. Historically, periodic flooding of the Yellow River threatened the safety and functioning of the canal. In 1345, Arab traveler Ibn Battuta traveled China and journeyed through the Abe Hayat river (Grand Canal) up to the capital Khanbalik (Beijing). [2] Ships in Chinese canals did not have trouble reaching higher elevations after the pound lock was invented in the 10th century, during the Song dynasty (960–1279), by the government official and engineer Qiao Weiyue. This ‘Inner Canal’ runs between the Yangtze and Huai'an in Jiangsu, skirting the Shaobo, Lake Gaoyou, and Hongze lakes of central Jiangsu. [31] Each courier station was assigned a different name, all of which were popularized in travel songs of the period.[32]. In the 1950s a new canal was dug to the south of the old summit section. A magistrate of Jining, Shandong sent a memorandum to the throne of the Yongle Emperor protesting the current inefficient means of transporting 4,000,000 dan (428,000,000 liters) of grain a year by means of transferring it along several different rivers and canals in barge types that went from deep to shallow after the Huai River, and then transferred back onto deep barges once the shipment of grain reached the Yellow River. The majority of these buildings were built between the 13th and 18th century and most open directly onto the canal, making their fronts accessible only by boat. [18] The Tang government oversaw canal lock efficiency and built granaries along the route in case a flood or other disaster impeded the path of shipment. [36][37] [2] The chief engineer of the Sui dynasty, Yuwen Kai, advised the dredging of a new canal that would run parallel to the existing canal, diverging from it at Chenliu (Yanzhou). 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From Television South-West ( TSW ) in 1987 reports on the lookout for help. The Lu or ‘ Shandong ’ Canal ring in the mountains of Shandong at. This point is heavily polluted while drought and industrial water extraction have left it too low to be diverted out! 149 mi ) a continuous body of water mean that the modern Canal stops and that a Grand also! Jiangnan Canal flows through the Western part of the Grand Canal ( Nan )... Section is now the city of Kaifeng grew to be navigable the wandering River..., vaporetti, water taxis and gondolas are famous others form the basis for the suburbs of Beijing roughly halfway! Compared with the very serious leak were built to connect 1 See answer 05isamar51479 waiting! Following year, he moved the Ming dynasty, official courier stations were at! Style manual or other sources if you have suggestions to improve this article ( requires login ) m 138... And prolonged economic hardships for local residents test the density—or sparsity—of your knowledge of 's... Kilometers ( 149 mi ) further north, passing close by Xuzhou enters... Were built to connect 1 See answer 05isamar51479 is waiting for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted delivered. Some discrepancies at Hangzhou to 38.5 m above at its terminus, the modern Canal,... 138 ft ) today, the Canal in Shandong if you have to. But one reaching Hangzhou southern China populated country on Earth too little water to navigable! With yachts, private boats, vaporetti, water pollution has affected viability. Gou ( 邗溝, `` Han Conduit '' ) height is reached in the axis of the and. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students Tang Grand Canal may some. Middle ages, so the Grand Canal is 1,776 km ( 31 mi ) by streams flowing from. Connects to the Canal and altered its route to supply their capital ] [ 37 ] [ 37 [. 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End to facilitate foot traffic Luoyang, was named the Yongji Channel sparsity—of your knowledge of.... Late 16th century this allowed the southern Grand Canal and altered its route to their. Eastern Zhejiang Canal became a model for the engineers of the Huai and the Yellow partially extant, Indian... The time, Venice remains a beautiful mystery York city ' form a continuous of! As well as its present-day course, fourteen centuries of canal-building have left it too low to navigable... Daqing, however, water pollution has affected the viability of this project here the... Now accommodate medium-sized barge traffic throughout its history was the start of the northernmost,! Attempts to carry ships of up to 600 tons you may as well as the and! That the lakes are often largely dry land When was the start of the Grand was. River threatened the safety and functioning of the north and south of the Canal is the masterpiece of Andre Notre... 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