a16z crypto canon

by Jesse Walden by Chris Burniske https://a16z.com/2018/05/04/intro-to-crypto/, Cryptographic hash function — what they are, properties of, etc. Past performance is not indicative of future results. (“a16z”) personnel quoted and are not the views of a16z or its affiliates. (“a16z”) personnel quoted and are not the views of a16z or its affiliates. https://medium.com/@cburniske/cryptoasset-valuations-ac83479ffca7, An (institutional) investor’s take on cryptoassets References to any securities or digital assets are for illustrative purposes only, and do not constitute an investment recommendation or offer to provide investment advisory services. by Jake Brukhman by Stefano Bernardi and Yannick Roux In meantime, you can find a16z’s writings, posts, and videos on the topic at a16z.com/crypto. The history of Casper  (series) by Marc Andreessen by Aleksandr Bulkin http://www.michaelnielsen.org/ddi/how-the-bitcoin-protocol-actually-works/, Ethereum in 25 minutes (An offering to invest in an a16z fund will be made only by the private placement memorandum, subscription agreement, and other relevant documentation of any such fund and should be read in their entirety.) by Manuel Araoz by Thomas Euler Sandi Fatic Sandi previously worked on releasing the Facebook web, analyzing Google traffic and various other blockchain and machine learning projects. Nick Tomaino and Chris Dixon by James Martin Duffy https://steemit.com/eos/@iang/seeking-consensus-on-consensus-dpos-or-delegated-proof-of-stake-and-the-two-generals-problem, Consensus Compare: Casper vs. Tendermint; Tendermint BFT vs. EOS dPoS by Vitalik Buterin https://youtu.be/0WiTaBI82Mc, Basic primer on blockchain — ledger basics, why it matters https://medium.com/@ilovebagels/token-curated-registries-1-0-61a232f8dac7, Token curated registry design patterns — design thinking and use case exploration for these building blocks of decentralized applications based on fungible tokens and digital scarcity https://www.tokendaily.co/type/launches by Aleksandr Bulkin If you are as excited about crypto as we are, and have experience building software products, we invite you to apply. Just as we don’t need to understand what TCP/IP is or how packet routing works to use the world wide web, we don’t need to know all the details of crypto to use it or benefit from it. The views expressed here are those of the individual AH Capital Management, L.L.C. by Tim Ferris https://medium.com/@VitalikButerin/zk-snarks-under-the-hood-b33151a013f6, STARKs, part I: proofs with polynomials — general-purpose technology that can be used for all sorts of use cases ranging from verifiable computation to privacy-preserving cryptocurrency https://blog.cosmos.network/consensus-compare-tendermint-bft-vs-eos-dpos-46c5bca7204b, Ethereum Casper 101 They ask me what they should read. Any investments or portfolio companies mentioned, referred to, or described are not representative of all investments in vehicles managed by a16z, and there can be no assurance that the investments will be profitable or that other investments made in the future will have similar characteristics or results. by Vlad Zamfir Check out the network status (and any changes you made while playing in step 2). by Radar Relay https://thecontrol.co/our-process-for-evaluating-new-tokens-4627ed97f500, Token classification framework — a multi-dimensional tool for understanding and classifying crypto tokens by Arthur Breitman by Josh Stark Please see https://a16z.com/disclosures for additional important information. a16z Crypto Canon (Venture giant Andreessen Horowitz’s crypto fun maintains this mega list of crypto articles) The Crypto Canon: a16z crypto readings resources. https://medium.com/coinmonks/token-curated-registry-tcr-design-patterns-4de6d18efa15, Token curated registries that don’t work — TCRs are a holy grail of decentralized computing (all about trustless systems), but have a number of subtle but significant problems by Joel Monegro by Soona Amhaz, Ari Paul, Ryan Selkis, Dennis Stücken, Erik Torenberg, Ben Tossell, Linda Xie, et al Certain information contained in here has been obtained from third-party sources, including from portfolio companies of funds managed by a16z. https://hackernoon.com/wtf-is-the-blockchain-1da89ba19348, Ever wonder how bitcoin (and other cryptocurrencies) actually work? http://freedom-to-tinker.com/2018/02/26/blockchain-what-is-it-good-for/, How the U.S. government used blockchain to fight fraud https://smt.steem.io/smt-whitepaper.pdf, Digital pets that don’t die Today, a number of exciting new computing paradigms are on the cusp of going mainstream. The program is completely free. by Balaji Srinivasan https://multicoin.capital/2017/12/08/understanding-token-velocity/, A process for evaluating new tokens https://multicoin.capital/2018/03/02/delegated-proof-stake-features-tradeoffs/, Seeking consensus on consensus — DPOS (delegated proof of stake) and the Two Generals’ problem by Nick Tomaino https://github.com/PYMERVAL/decentradexchange, Stablecoins: A holy grail in digital currency (An offering to invest in an a16z fund will be made only by the private placement memorandum, subscription agreement, and other relevant documentation of any such fund and should be read in their entirety.) https://youtu.be/507wn9VcSAE, Bitcoin network effects https://tim.blog/2017/06/04/nick-szabo/, Why crypto tokens matter by Elizabeth Stark https://epicenter.tv/episodes/, The Ceremony — Radiolab podcast featuring story of Zcash You must go to the link below and keep refreshing. There is no charge and we don’t take equity. by Arvind Narayanan and Jeremy Clark with Morgen Peck, Peter Todd, Peter Van Valkenburgh, Zooko Wilcox; by Molly Webster and Matt Kielty by Nick Tomaino https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/046.pdf, Succinct non-interactive zero knowledge for a von Neumann Architecture Any projections, estimates, forecasts, targets, prospects, and/or opinions expressed in these materials are subject to change without notice and may differ or be contrary to opinions expressed by others. You should consult your own advisers as to those matters. by Ethereum Foundation Check out the lists that inspired this guide, created and maintained by crypto investors. https://blog.bigchaindb.com/the-dcs-triangle-5ce0e9e0f1dc, Models for scaling trustless computation — on the “trilemma” of scalability, tradeoffs between safety, scalability, and decentralization of block production https://medium.com/wireline/when-can-token-curated-registries-actually-work-%C2%B9-2ad908653aaf, Token curated registries — a more formal but less-than-mathematical view of token-curated registries https://medium.com/@icebearhww/ethereum-sharding-and-finality-65248951f649, What it means to have consensus in a distributed system — brief basics of distributed systems and distributed “consensus” by Elizabeth Stark https://coincenter.org/entry/what-is-the-lightning-network, Making sense of Ethereum’s Layer 2 scaling solutions: state channels, Plasma, and Truebit https://blog.unchained-capital.com/blockchain-spectrum-806847e1c575, Money, blockchains, and social scalability by David Knott by Albert Wenger https://medium.com/radarrelay/networked-liquidity-2030d85af897, List of decentralized exchanges — of cryptocurrencies and tokens (does not yet include column for degree of decentralization) https://multicoin.capital/2018/02/23/models-scaling-trustless-computation/, What are zk-SNARKs and why do they matter? https://hackernoon.com/scaling-tezo-8de241dd91bd, Ethereum Foundation research initiatives — primary topics in both pure and applied research by Michael Nielsen https://medium.com/@cdixon/crypto-tokens-a-breakthrough-in-open-network-design-e600975be2ef, Crypto tokens and the coming age of protocol innovation by Dan Boneh and Victor Shoup The Crypto Startup School from a16z. (An offering to invest in an a16z fund will be made only by the private placement memorandum, subscription agreement, and other relevant documentation of any such fund and should be read in their entirety.) https://medium.com/xlnt-art/cryptocollectibles-are-xlnt-but-nobody-knows-whats-next-a7892b311637, Rare pepe — what happens when you combine a crypto-asset with a meme and a trading card Here’s a list of crypto readings and resources. http://notes.eth.sg/CwIwZgbAjADAxgUwLQEMUIKxOCsWCcIEwShAHCgEwJj4qyVA, Ethereum scalability research and development subsidy programs by Hudson Jameson https://medium.com/@preethikasireddy/lets-take-a-crack-at-understanding-distributed-consensus-dad23d0dc95, Decentralization in bitcoin and ethereum https://blog.coinfund.io/curate-this-token-curated-registries-that-dont-work-d76370b77150, Token curated registry design flaws — why blockchain needs reputation by Arvind Narayan, Joseph Bonneau, Edward Felten, Andrew Miller https://medium.com/blockchannel/a-crash-course-in-mechanism-design-for-cryptoeconomic-applications-a9f06ab6a976, The security token thesis — when a broad array of assets moves to blockchain records of ownership (represented by tokens) It’s broader in scope and less focused on helping beginners ramp up, though there is some overlap with my list. by Ian Grigg by Warren Weber Marketing partner Kim Milosevich and Jesse Walden, former founder of Mediachain who’s helping lead our Crypto Startup School, chat with a16z crypto editor Zoran Basich — in this hallway-style episode of the a16z Podcast — about virtual learning and collaboration in a new, uncharted world. https://github.com/jstoxrocky/zksnarks_example, Epicenter — a trove of interviews with many different blockchain project leads We’ve been involved in crypto/blockchains for almost seven years now, and as a team, have had the opportunity to learn from world-class entrepreneurs and technologists on topics like product and technology design, organization development, go-to-market strategy, and legal/regulatory best practices. https://a16z.com/2017/04/03/cryptocurrencies-protocols-appcoins/, Getting applications into people’s hands by Nick Tomaino https://hackernoon.com/the-security-token-thesis-4c5904761063, Cryptoasset valuations — a theory and framework for evaluating As with any new computing movement, blockchains have endured a variety of challenges, false starts, and misconceptions. Some of the challenges are technical (e.g., scalability), some are product related (e.g., user experience), but many are due to the lack of widespread understanding of the technology’s capabilities, and the best practices required to take it mainstream. https://piazza.com/princeton/spring2015/btctech/home, Advanced topics in computer science: Bitcoin and cryptocurrency technologies (2014) https://medium.com/@mattcondon/getting-up-to-speed-on-ethereum-63ed28821bbe, A basic glossary of terms — a few short and simple definitions https://hbr.org/2017/01/the-truth-about-blockchain, The slow death of the firm http://hackingdistributed.com/2018/07/02/on-chain-vote-buying/, Thoughts on governance and network effects He wrote the Ethereum ERC-998 standard for Composable Tokens and has been published in a16z's crypto canon reading list. https://medium.com/@FEhrsam/funding-the-evolution-of-blockchains-87d160988481, The bitcoin model for crowdfunding (The a16z team also pointed me to its Crypto Canon, a reading list with lots of other resources too.) by Ed Felten https://media.consensys.net/interplanetary-linked-computing-separating-merkle-computing-from-blockchain-computational-courts-1ade201ecf8a, Ethereum sharding: overview and finality by Vitalik Buterin (“a16z”) personnel quoted and are not the views of a16z or its affiliates. by Kyle Samani by Kathryn Haun by Jay Graber by Chris Berg, Sinclair Davidson, and Jason Potts https://medium.com/@jacobscott/the-emergence-of-cryptoeconomic-primitives-14ef3300cc10, Token lexicon — buzzwords related to curation markets and collectibles https://medium.com/@Vlad_Zamfir/against-on-chain-governance-a4ceacd040ca, On-chain vote buying and the rise of dark DAOs — on on-chain voting and governance https://www.usv.com/blog/fat-protocols, Cryptocurrencies, app coins, and investing in protocols by Leslie Lamport, Robert Shostak, and Marshall Pease https://blog.coinfund.io/the-quantity-theory-of-money-for-tokens-dbfbc5472423, On medium-of-exchange token valuations https://medium.com/blockchannel/on-value-velocity-and-monetary-theory-a-new-approach-to-cryptoasset-valuations-32c9b22e3b6f, On the quantity theory of money for tokens — take from a former research officer at Federal Reserve Bank (Minneapolis) Any investments or portfolio companies mentioned, referred to, or described are not representative of all investments in vehicles managed by a16z, and there can be no assurance that the investments will be profitable or that other investments made in the future will have similar characteristics or results. by Odysseas Sclavounis and Nic Carter by Matt Condon by 1confirmation https://thecontrol.co/stablecoins-a-holy-grail-in-digital-currency-b64f3371e111, An overview of stablecoins by Josh Stark https://medium.com/@linda.xie/beginners-guide-series-on-cryptoassets-d897535d887, Bitcoin whitepaper (2009): A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System https://medium.com/@VitalikButerin/a-proof-of-stake-design-philosophy-506585978d51, Delegrated proof of stake: Features and tradeoffs by Fred Ehrsam https://blog.cosmos.network/cosmos-fee-token-introducing-the-photon-8a62b2f51aa, Explanation of DAICOs A lot of friends are starting to go deeper into the crypto rabbit hole. http://avc.com/2017/05/rare-pepe/, Introducing curation markets — trade popularity of memes and information (with code!) by Fredrik Harrysson and Anna Rose This episode features Q&As with two artists who are exploring crypto-powered auction sites and marketplaces – this is part of our ongoing series on the creator economy.The big picture is that emerging “tokenization” models, including non-fungible tokens, or NFTs, are creating new ways for collectors and investors to buy, sell, and trade digital art. by Vitalik Buterin Certain information contained in here has been obtained from third-party sources, including from portfolio companies of funds managed by a16z. You will hear from leading technologists and investors in the field, and learn the fundamentals of building a crypto startup. The views expressed here are those of the individual AH Capital Management, L.L.C. by Kyle Samani https://medium.com/loom-network/how-to-secure-your-smart-contracts-6-solidity-vulnerabilities-and-how-to-avoid-them-part-1-c33048d4d17d by Billy Rennekamp by Laura Shin Here’s a list of crypto readings and resources. — how it functions at a technical level, without complex math https://blog.zeppelin.solutions/the-hitchhikers-guide-to-smart-contracts-in-ethereum-848f08001f05, Introduction to zk-SNARKs with examples — an overview of zk-SNARKs from a practical viewpoint Really well organised and will bring you up to speed at a gradual pace. https://blog.gnosis.pm/the-parrot-and-the-viper-a-tale-of-ethereum-scalability-3d121df3de87, Platform currencies may soon be obsolete — here is my claim: within 5 years the biggest cryptocurrency by market cap will be an application token A list of investments made by funds managed by Andreessen Horowitz (excluding investments for which the issuer has not provided permission for a16z to disclose publicly as well as unannounced investments in publicly traded digital assets) is available at, Charts and graphs provided within are for informational purposes solely and should not be relied upon when making any investment decision. by Nathan Sexer by Stephen McKeon by ConsenSys Diligence This is the list to read by Eric Gorski https://youtu.be/66SaEDzlmP4, How does Ethereum work, anyway? https://vitalik.ca/general/2017/11/09/starks_part_1.html, Scalable, transparent, and post-quantum secure computational integrity — on transparent zk-SNARKs (zk-STARKs) as a solution to the tension between personal privacy and institutional integrity It’s organized from, This content is provided for informational purposes only, and should not be relied upon as legal, business, investment, or tax advice. by Vitalik Buterin This in turn enables the credible creation of powerful new computing primitives, such as digital money, smart contracts, and decentralized organizations. ; programmability as feature of money by Vlad Zamfir You should consult your own advisers as to those matters. by Ryan Zurrer PS5 Walmart pre-orders are in stock – kind of. https://medium.com/@preethikasireddy/how-does-ethereum-work-anyway-22d1df506369, Decrypting crypto, from bitcoin and blockchain to ICOs We update this regularly (and will soon be open-sourcing it). https://youtu.be/9RtSod8EXn4, Blockchain governance — design components, approaches, suggestions ... Crypto Canon. by Khan Academy https://www.zeroknowledge.fm/21, Understanding zero-knowledge proofs — a summary based on the above episode of Zero Knowledge (with Fredrik Harrysson and Anna Rose) http://unenumerated.blogspot.com/2017/02/money-blockchains-and-social-scalability.html, What do we mean by “blockchains are trustless”? Charts and graphs provided within are for informational purposes solely and should not be relied upon when making any investment decision. by Eli Ben-Sasson, Alessandro Chiesa, Eran Tromer, and Madars Virza by Hsiao-Wei Wang by Maciej Olpinski Furthermore, this content is not directed at nor intended for use by any investors or prospective investors, and may not under any circumstances be relied upon when making a decision to invest in any fund managed by a16z. by Balaji Srinivasan and Leland Lee https://medium.com/@cdixon/why-decentralization-matters-5e3f79f7638e, The meaning of decentralization — but what does that actually mean? by Camila Russo This trust emerges from the mathematical and game-theoretic properties of the system, without depending on the trustworthiness of individual network participants. http://vitalik.ca/general/2017/10/17/moe.html, Understanding token velocity https://agoric.com/references/#aos, The idea of smart contracts (1997) by Arvind Narayan https://media.consensys.net/introduction-to-zksnarks-with-examples-3283b554fc3b, zkSNARKs: driver’s ed — practical beginner’s guide to creating, proving, verifying in contracts by Mohit Mamoria by Trent McConaghy https://blog.cosmos.network/consensus-compare-casper-vs-tendermint-6df154ad56ae by Kyle Samani One of the papers in a16z’s crypto canon, the classic, ‘The Byzantine Generals Problem’ (Lamport, Shostak & Pease, 1982), is foundational for understanding these assumptions. ... leading production of the a16z Crypto Canon; and many more. by Nicole Zhu We are particularly excited about the promise of blockchain computers such as Bitcoin, Ethereum, and many … https://blog.ethereum.org/2018/01/02/ethereum-scalability-research-development-subsidy-programs/, A beginner’s guide to Ethermint https://medium.com/@jonchoi/ethereum-casper-101-7a851a4f1eb0 https://medium.com/@rzurrer/keepers-workers-that-maintain-blockchain-networks-a40182615b66, The quiet master of cryptocurrency — Nick Szabo in conversation with Naval Ravikant by Scott Reyburn — including smart contracts Fred Ehrsam and Chris Dixon It’s the only US retailer with the new PlayStation in stock periodically. by Susan Athey and Kathryn Haun https://s3.eu-west-2.amazonaws.com/john-pfeffer/An+Investor%27s+Take+on+Cryptoassets+v6.pdf, Comments on the above (tweetstorm) — network effects? by Mike Goldin Juan Benet and Chris Dixon by Vitalik Buterin by Eli Ben-Sasson, Iddo Bentov, Yinon Horesh, and Michael Riabzev Historically, new models of computing have tended to emerge every 10–15 years: mainframes in the 60s, PCs in the late 70s, the internet in the early 90s, and smartphones in the 2000s. — understanding the problem it solves before defining it nuances, depth by Kathleen Breitman The Crypto Canon: a16z crypto readings resources.Really well organised and will bring you up to speed at a gradual pace. https://z.cash/technology/zksnarks.html, Introduction to zero-knowledge proofs — Zero Knowledge podcast episode 21, examples and underlying concepts https://twitter.com/FEhrsam/status/958388803655184386, Early UIs for curation markets (tweetstorm) — categories and some projects using markets to curate human readable information Inspired by a16z’s crypto canon, here are my favorite readings about cryptocurrencies and blockchain technology that I’ve been compiling over time. https://medium.com/@petkanics/inflation-and-participation-in-stake-based-token-protocols-1593688612bf, Making sense of cryptoeconomics — the term and the concept https://www.nytimes.com/2018/01/16/magazine/beyond-the-bitcoin-bubble.html, Crypto tokens: A breakthrough in open network design The lectures will be in person in Menlo Park, Cali., and afterwards we’ll be putting videos of the event along with curriculum materials online. Please see, nature of the firm & evolving institutions, https://hackernoon.com/wtf-is-the-blockchain-1da89ba19348, http://www.michaelnielsen.org/ddi/how-the-bitcoin-protocol-actually-works/, https://medium.com/@preethikasireddy/how-does-ethereum-work-anyway-22d1df506369, https://a16z.com/2017/12/08/summit-crypto-alex-rampell/, https://a16z.com/2018/05/04/intro-to-crypto/, https://medium.com/@cryptoeconomics/the-blockchain-economy-a-beginners-guide-to-institutional-cryptoeconomics-64bf2f2beec4, https://medium.com/@mattcondon/getting-up-to-speed-on-ethereum-63ed28821bbe, https://tangelo.co/insights/blog/techs-must-have-reference-guide-to-blockchain-and-cryptocurrency, https://medium.com/@linda.xie/beginners-guide-series-on-cryptoassets-d897535d887, https://github.com/ethereum/wiki/wiki/White-Paper, https://people.eecs.berkeley.edu/~luca/cs174/byzantine.pdf, http://www.fon.hum.uva.nl/rob/Courses/InformationInSpeech/CDROM/Literature/LOTwinterschool2006/szabo.best.vwh.net/idea.html, https://dealbook.nytimes.com/2014/01/21/why-bitcoin-matters/, https://queue.acm.org/detail.cfm?id=3136559, https://www.nytimes.com/2018/01/16/magazine/beyond-the-bitcoin-bubble.html, https://medium.com/@cdixon/crypto-tokens-a-breakthrough-in-open-network-design-e600975be2ef, http://continuations.com/post/148098927445/crypto-tokens-and-the-coming-age-of-protocol, https://a16z.com/2017/04/03/cryptocurrencies-protocols-appcoins/, https://a16z.com/2017/09/14/networks-protocols-labs-tokens/, http://freedom-to-tinker.com/2018/02/26/blockchain-what-is-it-good-for/, http://blog.eladgil.com/2017/12/bitcoin-network-effects_11.html, https://medium.com/@rzurrer/keepers-workers-that-maintain-blockchain-networks-a40182615b66, https://a16z.com/2017/09/28/cryptocurrencies-networks-tokens/, https://www.nickgrossman.is/2018/cryptonetworks-and-why-tokens-are-fundamental/, https://blog.unchained-capital.com/blockchain-spectrum-806847e1c575, http://unenumerated.blogspot.com/2017/02/money-blockchains-and-social-scalability.html, https://medium.com/@preethikasireddy/eli5-what-do-we-mean-by-blockchains-are-trustless-aa420635d5f6, https://medium.com/@cdixon/why-decentralization-matters-5e3f79f7638e, https://medium.com/@VitalikButerin/the-meaning-of-decentralization-a0c92b76a274, https://news.earn.com/quantifying-decentralization-e39db233c28e, https://hbr.org/2017/01/the-truth-about-blockchain, https://thecontrol.co/the-slow-death-of-the-firm-1bd6cc81286b, https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/unchained-big-ideas-from-worlds-blockchain-cryptocurrency/id1123922160, https://a16z.com/2018/01/21/mental-models-tokens-crypto-trends/, https://vitalik.ca/general/2017/03/14/forks_and_markets.html, https://www.docdroid.net/ddz6VzP/overview-governance-blockchains-nc-zcon.pdf, https://docs.google.com/presentation/d/10cLFnYaR0r58DyPVYwMgJq3nJOFVkO02hxJf1hxGnJ0/edit?usp=sharing, https://medium.com/@kathleenbreit/the-myth-of-the-irrational-token-holder-c12438709afd, https://medium.com/@FEhrsam/blockchain-governance-programming-our-future-c3bfe30f2d74, https://medium.com/@Vlad_Zamfir/against-on-chain-governance-a4ceacd040ca, http://hackingdistributed.com/2018/07/02/on-chain-vote-buying/, https://blog.aragon.one/thoughts-on-governance-and-network-effects-f40fda3e3f98, http://vitalik.ca/general/2017/12/17/voting.html, https://www.tezos.com/static/papers/position_paper.pdf, https://blog.chorus.one/an-overview-of-cosmos-hub-governance/, https://blog.ethereum.org/2016/01/15/privacy-on-the-blockchain/, https://medium.com/loom-network/how-to-secure-your-smart-contracts-6-solidity-vulnerabilities-and-how-to-avoid-them-part-1-c33048d4d17d, https://medium.com/loom-network/how-to-secure-your-smart-contracts-6-solidity-vulnerabilities-and-how-to-avoid-them-part-2-730db0aa4834, https://consensys.github.io/smart-contract-best-practices/, https://blog.goodaudience.com/understanding-zero-knowledge-proofs-through-simple-examples-df673f796d99, https://medium.com/@VitalikButerin/zk-snarks-under-the-hood-b33151a013f6, https://vitalik.ca/general/2017/11/09/starks_part_1.html, https://hackernoon.com/blockchains-dont-scale-not-today-at-least-but-there-s-hope-2cb43946551a, https://blog.bigchaindb.com/the-dcs-triangle-5ce0e9e0f1dc, https://multicoin.capital/2018/02/23/models-scaling-trustless-computation/, https://blog.gnosis.pm/the-parrot-and-the-viper-a-tale-of-ethereum-scalability-3d121df3de87, https://blog.coinfund.io/platform-currencies-may-soon-be-obsolete-78d9b263d902, https://coincenter.org/entry/what-is-the-lightning-network, https://medium.com/l4-media/making-sense-of-ethereums-layer-2-scaling-solutions-state-channels-plasma-and-truebit-22cb40dcc2f4, https://vitalik.ca/general/2018/08/26/layer_1.html, https://hackernoon.com/scaling-tezo-8de241dd91bd, http://notes.eth.sg/CwIwZgbAjADAxgUwLQEMUIKxOCsWCcIEwShAHCgEwJj4qyVA, https://blog.ethereum.org/2018/01/02/ethereum-scalability-research-development-subsidy-programs/, https://blog.cosmos.network/a-beginners-guide-to-ethermint-38ee15f8a6f4, https://blog.omisego.network/construction-of-a-plasma-chain-0x1-614f6ebd1612, https://hudsonjameson.com/2017-06-27-accounts-transactions-gas-ethereum/, https://media.consensys.net/interplanetary-linked-computing-separating-merkle-computing-from-blockchain-computational-courts-1ade201ecf8a, https://medium.com/@icebearhww/ethereum-sharding-and-finality-65248951f649, https://medium.com/@preethikasireddy/lets-take-a-crack-at-understanding-distributed-consensus-dad23d0dc95, http://hackingdistributed.com/2018/01/15/decentralization-bitcoin-ethereum/, https://medium.com/@VitalikButerin/a-proof-of-stake-design-philosophy-506585978d51, https://multicoin.capital/2018/03/02/delegated-proof-stake-features-tradeoffs/, 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