wiki french battleship richelieu

The German Reichsmarine had ordered two units similar to the Deutschland, namely the Admiral Scheer and Admiral Graf Spee, which outgunned all existing heavy cruisers. 1.1. [51], The propulsion of the Richelieu was assured by six Indret boilers, and four Parsons turbines. The OPf Model 1935 was a further development of the 330 mm (13 in) OPf Model 1935, in use on the Dunkerque, except that its molded base formed a boat tail that assisted in keeping the shell stable in flight. Initially two ships were ordered in 1935 in response Richelieu was a French fast battleship the lead ship of the Richelieu class Built as a response to … The Richelieu-class battleships were the last and largest battleships of the French Navy, staying in service into the 1960s. Due to her lack of high explosive shells for attacks against land targets, she was finally designated to join the British Eastern Fleet, in the Indian Ocean, to cover for British battleships undergoing refit. [154] During the two days, the Richelieu fired a total of 24 rounds. [85], Six 37 mm (1.5 in) ACAD Model 1935 mountings would have been fitted, four abeam[Clarification needed], The most conspicuous difference in the Richelieu and Dunkerque profiles was the mounting of the fire control director system aft, not on a separate tower located behind the funnel, but on a kind of mack, so that the funnel opening came out obliquely aft underneath the control tower. The No. Against aircraft, the 152 mm (6.0 in)/55 Model 1930 guns would be firing High Explosive (HE) shells, registered as OEA (Obus Explosif en Acier) Model 1936 and weighing 54.7 kilograms (121 lb), or 49.3 kilograms (109 lb) for the OEA Model 1937. 13.2 mm Hotchkiss machine guns The remainder of the 20 mm battery was installed abeam the superstructures, on the towers, and atop the turrets No. But the Achilles' heels of battleships facing torpedo attacks were their vitals that could not be protected, such as the shaft of the Richelieu at Dakar, on 8 July 1940, or the rudder of the Bismarck in May 1941. [5] Italy believed the Dunkerque class changed the balance between the battleship fleets in the Western Mediterranean, and so in May 1934 announced[6] the building of two 35,000 tons battleships, armed with nine 381 mm guns. This page was last edited on 30 March 2016, at 21:58. Sarnet, René; Le Vaillant, Eric (1997) (in fr). [165] While she was passing down the Straits of Malacca on 9 September, at 07:44 a magnetic mine detonated 17 meters (56 ft) to starboard. [80], The 152 mm (6.0 in) Model 1930 Low-Angle turret proved to be highly satisfactory, at least comparable to the German single or twin 150 mm (5.9 in) gun turrets, or the Italian triple 152 mm (6.0 in) turrets Model 1934 or 1936. Pierre Boisson, Gouverneur Général de l'A.E.F. But when these ships' final design was about to be settled, Germany was negotiating the 1935 Anglo-German Naval Agreement, and the British Government was pressing very strongly for limits on the battleship main artillery caliber. The radius of possible travel was 9,850 nautical miles (18,240 km; 11,340 mi) at 16 knots (30 km/h; 18 mph), 8,250 nautical miles (15,280 km; 9,490 mi) at 20 knots (37 km/h; 23 mph), and 3,450 nautical miles (6,390 km; 3,970 mi) at 30 knots (56 km/h; 35 mph). She was fitted with air and surface warning radars, designed for small warships – one SF type for sea watch, on the mast of the aft tower, and one SA-2 type for air watch, with its radome atop the fire control directors on the fore tower. 1. After 1946, she had the classic existence of a warship during peacetime, alternating between training times and such tasks as, maneuvering with the aircraft carrier Arromanches  – formerly HMS Colossus – when she joined the French Navy, taking the President of the French Republic for a visit to the French West Africa colonies in 1947 or officially visiting Portugal. The Richelieu-class battleships were the last and largest battleships of the French Navy. [68] The turrets were positioned 32.5 meters (107 ft) apart from one another, 3.70 meters (12.1 ft) more than on the Dunkerque. [113] They were 6.30 meters (20.7 ft) long versus 5.33 m in on the Dunkerque, 4.65 meters (15.3 ft) height versus 5.34 meters (17.5 ft), and moreover 4.50 meters (14.8 ft) wide versus 6.50 meters (21.3 ft). *Cover: Richelieu at sea in 1944 (as seen by the AA on the bridge and dark paint of the bridge). [94], On Richelieu, the armor weight was 16,045 tonnes (15,792 long tons) and corresponded to 39.2% of the total weight, for a 40,927 tonnes (40,281 long tons) normal displacement, with 2,905 tonnes (2,859 long tons) of fuel (half of full load). Sarnet, René; Le Vaillant, Eric (1997) (in fr). [108], The French designers of the Richelieu had various constraints: a 33.5 meters (110 ft) beam to accommodate the barbettes of four 380 mm (15 in) gun turrets, a 245 meters (804 ft) long hull, limited by the length of the Navy shipbuilding infrastructure, and thus a length/beam ratio of 7.3. Dunkerque had a displacement of 26,500 tons and was armed with eight 330 mm guns. Magenta(1861) – sank after interna… Thus, a drastic revision of the AA battery was needed. Only HMS Hood, and the two Renow… It really is. [56][111] The Italian Littorio-class battleships reached 30 knots (56 km/h; 35 mph) with a 230 meters (750 ft) hull and 140,000 hp. I suppose I'll be accompanying you again today. However, they were only armed with nine 280 mm (11 in) guns, the same caliber as the Deutschland class. [119] Ultimately the U.S.A. adopted 16-inch (406 mm) guns for their new fast battleship classes,[120] whereas the United Kingdom chose to respect the original Second London Naval Treaty limitations for the King George V-class battleships. All these figures are very comparable to those of the Iowa-class battleships (18,700 tons for the armor weight and 41.6% of 45,000 tons standard displacement),[30] or for the Bismarck, (17,540 tons for the armor weight, and 41.30% of the 41,781 tons standard displacement. No High Explosive (HE) variant of the 380 mm (15 in) shell was originally provided. Afterwards, there were some proposals in 1957–1958 to modernize her anti-aircraft artillery with new 100 mm (3.9 in) turrets (Model 53 in place of Model 45), or later to transform her into a guided missile battleship as had been USS Mississippi (but no French-built missile existed at that time, so it was proposed to use the U.S. Terrier missile). [2] Only HMS Hood, and the two Renown-class battlecruisers could catch the Deutschland and her sister ships.[3]. [19] From 1924 to 1932, the annual Tranche Navale (literally, a "slice" of the Statut Naval) included only cruisers, destroyers, torpedo-boats, and submarines. Richelieu remained with only two fire control directors on the fore tower – the upper director for anti-aircraft gunnery was suppressed – and the rear mast was shortened. But on the Dunkerque, with a 31.10 m (102.25 ft) beam and 330 mm (13.0 in) guns, the four barrels of each turret were not mounted independently (in separate cradles) because this would have meant an unduly large barbette diameter. Szerző: Richelieu class battleships inboard profile.svg: Sas1975kr; derivative work: Maxrossomachin Files are available under licenses specified on their description page. They were designed in the 1930s to counter the threat of the Italian Littorio-class battleships. [107] The Italian Littorio-class battleships had a peculiar underwater protection system, designed by the Italian chief designer, Generale Ispettore del Genio Navale Pugliese, which incorporated a 3.8-meter (12 ft) diameter cylindrical expansion space. [64][65] On 25 September, Captain Marzin having resolved to rearm the 380 mm No. The aircraft were (flying boat) seaplanes of the Loire 130 type. Otherwise, the aviation facilities would have been the same as on the Richelieu. [201] In the late 1950s, the name of Clemenceau was given to the first modern post-war French-built aircraft carrier, French aircraft carrier Clemenceau. [50], The Richelieu, as designed, before the 1943 refit in New York, The Richelieu class had a planned standard displacement of 35,000 tons, equal to the Washington Treaty limit, with a main armament of eight 380 mm (15 in) guns in two quadruple turrets. But the 152 mm (6.0 in) battery would have consisted of four triple turrets of 152 mm (6.0 in) caliber, two amidships (one on each side), and two aft in superfiring positions. However by November 1940 it became evident that this would not be provided in time for the Richelieu's completion. In the morning, Swordfish bombers from the Hermes torpedoed Richelieu below the armored deck. Richelieu class 35,000 tons standard, 43,293–46,500 tons standard, 47,548–49,850 tons deep load. The Jean Bart, with her 380 mm (15 in) guns opened fire on the U.S. warships covering the landings, range finding being done using the shore stations of Sidi Abderhamane and Dar Bou Azza and the data sent by phone to the battleship. [46] The German battleship Bismarck had a 29-knot (54 km/h; 33 mph) speed with 138,000 hp, and reached 30.5 knots with forcing for 150,000 shp,[32] with a length/beam ratio of only 6.9 as she had nearly the same hull length as the Richelieu, but a wider beam (36 meters (118 ft)). The short range anti-aircraft artillery had only four double 37 mm (1.5 in) semi-automatic mountings, four quadruple 13.2 mm (0.52 in) Hotchkiss machine guns, and two twin 13.2 mm machine guns. [49], The French Navy Board had indicated in July 1934 a minimum caliber of 380 mm (15.0 in) – dictated by the Italian Navy's choice – and a maximum caliber of 406 mm (16.0 in) – the Washington Treaty limit. The 43 m bow section and the 8 m stern section, built separately, had to be assembled there,[51][52] as the Salou building dock was only 200 m long. [92], As on the Dunkerque, aircraft installations (aircraft hangar, crane and two catapults, for four seaplanes) were fitted on the Richelieu's stern. All British or U.S. battleships built in the late 1930s, having to respect the 35,000 tons displacement limit, had a speed of 29 knots (54 km/h; 33 mph) – the King George V class – or 28 knots (52 km/h; 32 mph) – North Carolina or South Dakota classes; they were 225 meters (738 ft) or 215 meters (705 ft) long, with a propulsion plant developing respectively 110,000, 120,000, or 130,000 hp. When the 100 mm (3.9 in) AA battery was fitted, they were replaced by systems fitted with 4-meter (13 ft) OPL rangefinders for this battery's fire control. Initially, the French sought a reply to the Italian Trento-class cruisers of 1925, but all proposals were rejected. System 1, in the upper position, was for anti-aircraft gunnery and had a 6-meter (20 ft) double stereoscopic OPL rangefinder. [27], Moreover, at the same time, discussions at the Disarmament Subcommittee of the League of Nations had begun in Geneva, about the pursuit of naval armaments limitation policy. The ship was equipped with 380 mm guns, had a high speed, strong armor and very good torpedo protection. 2 turret, were discarded and replaced by those of No. [134], The most conspicuous change with the Gascogne would have been the return to a main artillery arrangement with a quadruple 380 mm (15 in) gun turret aft. The anti-aircraft battery was reinforced, by some 13.2 mm Browning MG mountings and four twin 37 mm CAD Model 1933 mountings, some being removed from the damaged destroyer L'Audacieux, but the 152 mm turrets were not able yet to fire on aerial targets. French patrol boat Richelieu (1915), an auxiliary patrol boat. In February 1929, everything changed when the German Reichsmarine laid down the keel of the first Deutschland-class cruiser, an armored ship (in German, Panzerschiff). [104], The Italian Littorio had a thicker armored belt (350 mm (14 in)) than the Richelieu, but otherwise they were less protected, with 350 mm (14 in) on the main artillery turrets, 260 mm (10 in) on the conning tower, 50 mm (2.0 in) on the upper armored deck and 100 mm (3.9 in) on the main deck. 1.2. One of her guns is on display in the harbor of Brest. The Richelieu was scrapped in 1968 and the Jean Bart in 1970. However, on 18 June 1935, the United Kingdom had unilaterally signed the Anglo-German Naval Agreement with the Third Reich. Intercepted in the Gulf of Guinea, by British cruisers which were intended to force him to turn back to Casablanca, he found finally refuge at Dakar with two cruisers, Georges Leygues, flagship, and Montcalm on 19 September. Thus, the aviation hangar would have been shortened by nearly 15 meters (49 ft). [56][57][1], The quadruple turret's major drawback was the risk of taking a single unlucky shot which would destroy one turret and cripple half the main battery; to help prevent this, the Dunkerque-class battleships' quadruple turrets had been divided internally, with a 25–40 mm (0.98–1.6 in) bulkhead to localize damage. The main turrets were protected with a 405 mm (15.9 in) thick armor on the barbette; 430 mm (17 in) armor on the faces, inclined to 30°; from 170 mm (6.7 in) to 195 mm (7.7 in) on the roof; 270 mm (11 in) on the turret I rear wall; and 260 mm (10 in) on the turret II rear wall. In the same shipbuilding yard, on the #1 slipway where the SS Normandie and Strasbourg had been laid down, the Joffre was to be built from November 1938 till 1941. She remained with only two rangefinders on the fore tower, and the rear mast was shortened. In April 1941, the ship was towed to sea to evaluate the propellant used by the battleship Richelieu during the Battle of Dakar on 24 September 1940. For the 152 mm (6.0 in) artillery, there were two fire control systems. The Force M (for Menace), British cruisers, and troopships carrying 8,000 men, escorted by small sloops flying the Free French ensign, left Liverpool on 26 August 1940, and joined a cover force of two battleships and the aircraft carrier HMS Ark Royal, off Gibraltar, all steering then to Freetown (Sierra-Leone). All British or U.S. battleships built in the late 1930s, having to respect the 35,000 tons displacement limit, had a speed of 29 knots (54 km/h; 33 mph) – the King George V class – or 28 knots (52 km/h; 32 mph) – North Carolina or South Dakota classes; they were 225 meters (738 ft) or 215 meters (705 ft) long, with a propulsion plant developing respectively 110,000, 120,000, or 130,000 shp. All this required machinery generating 150,000 shp to reach the 30 knots (56 km/h; 35 mph) requested by the French Navy Board. The damaged barrels were not yet repaired, because of the obstruction of the German Armistice Commission. Richelieu, the previous French battleship design France, the United Kingdom, and the United States signed the Second London Naval Treaty in 1936, though Japan and Italy both refused to do so, which effectively ended the international naval arms control regime begun with the Washington Naval Treaty of 1922. As only less than two hundred SD21 powder charges had been embarked in Brest, the eight hundred powder charges with SD19 propellant for Strasbourg's 330 mm guns left stored at Dakar the previous year, were reconditioned in 600 powder charges for 380 mm guns. The short range anti-aircraft artillery was massively reinforced, with fourteen quad Bofors 40 mm mountings, and forty eight Oerlikon 20 mm cannon guns in single mounts replacing the 37 mm semi-automatic guns and the 13.2 mm Hotchkiss machine guns. [3], Germany was not subject to the Washington Treaty limitations, but instead to the more stringent Treaty of Versailles restrictions. In order to patch the breach in the hull, a mattress 11.5 meters square reinforced with steel strands was fabricated to be put in place in early September, and the Dakar D.C.N. [97], Gunnery practices, at the end of the campaign with the East Indies Fleet, had clearly shown the origin of the dispersal of Richelieu's main battery firings in the wake effect between shells fired simultaneously by the guns of the same half turrets. [63] This weight was: less than the 181 tonnes (178 long tons) barrel on the Yamato,[65] or the 130 long tons (132 t) barrel on the Nelson;[67] nearly the same weight as the 112 tonnes (110 long tons) barrel on the Nagato,[65] the 109 tonnes (107 long tons) barrel on the Bismarck,[71] the 107 long tons (109 t) barrel on the Iowa,[66] the 102 tonnes (100 long tons) barrel on Littorio,[64] or the 97 long tons (99 t) Queen Elizabeth barrel; and more than the 80 long tons (81 t) King George V barrel.[67]. [137], The six 37 mm (1.5 in) AA Model 1935 mountings would have been installed with four mountings abeam the forward turret (two on the forecastle and two a little abaft, one deck higher), with their fire control systems amidships between the fore and the aft tower, and the two after mountings would have been positioned abeam the after superstructure with their fire control systems a little forward and one deck higher. With a 106-foot (32.31 m) beam and 406 mm (16.0 in) guns, the Nelson-class battleships had accommodated only triple turrets. Two of these mountings would have been positioned in front of the fore tower in superfiring position abaft the fore 380 mm (15 in) turrets, and four other ones, abeam the funnel and the axial aft 152 mm (6.0 in) turrets, and abaft the 152 mm (6.0 in) amidships turrets. All the fire control systems were airtight and fitted with light steel plating against the machine gun attacks of strafing aircraft. However, she was very useful post-war as a testbed for new French-built naval AA guns and radars. [2] Gunnery and speed sea trials showed a top speed of more than 32 knots (59 km/h; 37 mph). During the two following days, Richelieu, in the position of floating battery in the inner harbour of Dakar, was narrowly missed by some 250 British 381 mm (15.0 in) shells fired by HMS Barham and HMS Resolution, and bombs from HMS Ark Royal's aircraft, luckily receiving only light damage. During a call at Colombo, she was visited by Admiral Mountbatten, Supreme Allied Commander of the Southeast Asia Theatre. [17], The OPfK Model 1935 incorporated a dye bag and fuze (dispositif K) to color[lower-alpha 3] her splashes and the hits she inflicted. The firing rate was expected at 120 rpm or above. The maximum horizontal turning speed was 5°/s, and the maximum elevating speed 5.5°/s. 2 (380 mm) and No. The maximum angle of elevation of guns on the Model 1936 turret was 35°. During WWII, there were no other 152 mm (6.0 in) guns used as an anti-aircraft battery; however, they were successfully used post-war in two Worcester-class U.S. Navy cruisers and three Tiger-class cruisers of the Royal Navy, albeit with much better RPC and fire-control devices than the pre-WWII French ones. Richelieu was a French battleship and the lead ship of her class.She was a scaled-up version of the previous Dunkerque class.. She was fitted with air and surface warning radar, but the U.S. Navy was reluctant to provide gunnery practice radars. However for anti-aircraft purposes, the 152 mm (6.0 in) Model 1936 turret was thought to be complex, fragile, and a too heavy turret. [73][74] The U.S. Navy was opposed to providing radar for gunnery fire control purposes. When F-country was defeated in 1940s, the unfinished Richelieu arrived at Dakar on 15 June to avoid capture by G-country. [47] They were 6.30 meters (20.7 ft) long versus 5.33 m on the Dunkerque, 4.65 meters (15.3 ft) height versus 5.34 meters (17.5 ft), and moreover 4.50 meters (14.8 ft) wide versus 6.50 meters (21.3 ft). [175], On 8 November 1942, Allied landings in French North Africa (Operation Torch) begun. Two groups of nine Oerlikon 20 mm single mountings were installed, the first atop the former aviation hangar (nicknamed «the cemetery»), the second abaft the wavebreaker on the fore castle (nicknamed «the trench»). Then, after the oceanic submarine Bévéziers damaged HMS Resolution, Force M withdrew. The French Navy traces its origins to the early 17th century. [58] This method has been effective at Mers-el-Kebir, when the first British 381 mm (15.0 in) shell striking the Dunkerque ultimately hit the second 330 mm (13.0 in) turret; this killed all crew in the turret's right half, but the left half remained operational. To save weight, particularly in the heights, the anti-ship fire control system for the 152 mm (6.0 in) battery would have not been installed, but the two remaining fire control directors for the 152 mm (6.0 in) battery, on the aft tower and on the fore tower in the upper position, would have been fitted with a stereoscopic 8-meter (26 ft) OPL rangefinder. Richelieu in 1940–1942: A total of 832 APC shells were intended to be provided, slightly fewer than for the Dunkerque-class battleships (896 rounds). This figure of 7 meters (23 ft) width was impressive, compared with the 4.10 meters (13.5 ft) on the King George V, 5 meters (16 ft) on the Scharnhorst, or 6 meters (20 ft) on the Bismarck. A heavier caliber had been considered for the main artillery, and was preferred by Adolf Hitler, since the Dunkerque-class battleships were armed with 330 mm (13 in) guns. Gascogne never laid down – cancelled. As the modern Italian battleships were then interned in the Great Bitter Lake, after the armistice between Italy and the Allies, a modern battleship was no longer needed in the Mediterranean. Thus, the 152 mm (6.0 in) turret faces' armor thickness had to be reduced to 116 mm (4.6 in)– instead of 130 mm (5.1 in) – the armored belt's to 320 mm (13 in), and the main turrets' rear plates' to 250 mm (9.8 in). French battleship Richelieu colorized.jpg 1,237 × 728; 311 KB French battleship Richelieu underway in the Atlantic Ocean on 26 August 1943 (80-G-78789).jpg 5,584 × 4,424; 11.75 MB Le Richelieu a New York pour rearmement.jpg 4,754 × 3,146; 6.65 MB This thickness on the rear walls, less than on the, The 152 mm (6.0 in) gun turrets were less armored than the. [105] The German Bismarck-class battleships had a thinner armor than the Richelieu on the main artillery turrets (356 mm (14.0 in)), but thicker on the conning tower (356 mm (14.0 in)), and equivalent for the armored belt (320 mm (13 in)) and horizontal armor (80 mm (3.1 in) to 115 mm (4.5 in)). The same noteworthy weight accumulation in the fore tower top as on the Dunkerque proved to be a problem when the Richelieu was torpedoed at Dakar, as a whiplash effect on the main mast around which they were mounted provoked more serious effects on the fore tower systems than on those on the after tower, despite that the latter was nearer the torpedo explosion. The next operation (Operation Dukedom), in mid-May, to intercept the Haguro, was concluded by the sinking of the heavy cruiser by the 26th Division destroyers, before Richelieu and HMS Cumberland could intervene. In three days, the Governor General and the Naval Commander, suspected of pro-British sympathies were removed from their posts, Governor General Cayla was sent to Madagascar, Rear Admiral Plançon was replaced temporarily by Rear Admiral Platon, and on 17 August by Rear Admiral Landriau. Internally, it resembled contemporary U.S. Navy 356 mm shells. [38], The German Bismarck-class battleships, with 356 mm (14.0 in) on the main artillery turrets, 356 mm (14.0 in)on the conning tower, 320 mm (13 in) for the armored belt and (80 mm (3.1 in) to 115 mm (4.5 in) for the horizontal armor were also equivalent to Richelieu. – the French equivalent of the Department of the Director of Naval Construction in the Royal Navy – established a definitive project which was submitted to the Minister on 14 August 1935 and adopted on 31 August, and the Richelieu was laid down on 22 October 1935.

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